|Root feeding larva of Monomacra violacea|
|Leaf feeding larva of Red Ptocadica|
|Solitary feeding generalist larva of Heliconius cydno|
|Group feeding H. doris larvae only eat Passiflora ambigua|
|Josia frigida feeds on Passiflora costaricensis at La Selva|
Interestingly, the community structure is not a function of chemical diversification in cyanogenic glycosides, which was one of my first hypotheses when I began the study. Chemistry is obviously important in defining the three subgenera, although we don't understand its role, and it is also almost certainly important in the life histories of the monophagous species, but the overall role suggests that herbivore communities "deal" effectively with whatever cyanogens the plants throw at them. Of course you may see in the chart three Passiflora species not widely used by either flea beetles or Heliconius at La Selva - they may have some effective chemical defense. But the take home message is that the communities are determined by a combination of host plant taxonomy, habitat specialization, and larval feeding syndromes. The second message is that the two communities are basically "full" or "saturated" with species. This may be seen by the fact that each "box" in the chart has only one species, meaning that there is no "room" for two species to share the same "box." This may be the reason that the same species are found now as were found in 1975 when I began the study. Apparently these are relatively stable communities!